Book Value Per Common Share BVPS: Definition and Calculation

Stock repurchases occur at current stock prices, which can result in a significant reduction in a company's book value per common share. If XYZ can generate higher profits and use those profits to buy more assets or reduce liabilities, the firm's common equity increases. If, for example, the company generates $500,000 in earnings and uses $200,000 of the profits to buy assets, common equity increases along with BVPS. On the other hand, if XYZ uses $300,000 of the earnings to reduce liabilities, common equity also increases. Profitable reinvestment leads to more cash for companies looking for how to increase their book value of equity per share.

  1. The price-to-book ratio is simple to calculate—you divide the market price per share by the book value per share.
  2. Since public companies are owned by shareholders, this is also known as the total shareholders' equity.
  3. Hence, the book value per share interpretation effectively indicates a company’s net asset value (i.e. total assets – total liabilities) on a per-share basis.
  4. EPS, or earnings per share, measures net income as a percentage of a company's outstanding shares.
  5. Meanwhile, the total outstanding shares in the book value per common share formula are the shares in the open market that are held by shareholders.
  6. The shareholders’ equity in the book value per share of common stock formula is therefore what the shareholders get in the company after debts have been paid.

This can include any tools or machinery required to complete production, as well as any real estate owned and used for the purposes of production. Additional business equipment, such as computers and filing cabinets, may also be considered tangible assets for the purpose of valuation. The importance of book value per share formula and calculation is that it serves as an essential tool for value investors. It is a metric that is mostly used by value investors, people like Warren Buffet. Value investors always look for discounts and so make use of the BVPS as a useful tool to purchase a stock at a real value. A stock trading below its book value is a great opportunity for these kinds of investors.

Thus, market value is more subjective as it shows how attractive a company’s share is considered to be in the market and by the investment community. In contrast, book value is more objective, focusing on assets to highlight their financial strength and performance. Preferred stock is usually excluded from the calculation because preferred stockholders have a higher claim on assets in case of liquidation. We’ll assume the trading price in Year 0 was $20.00, and in Year 2, the market share price increases to $26.00, which is a 30.0% year-over-year increase.

While BVPS considers the residual equity per-share for a company's stock, net asset value, or NAV, is a per-share value calculated for a mutual fund or an exchange-traded fund, or ETF. For any of these investments, the NAV is calculated by dividing the total value of all the fund's securities by the total number of outstanding fund shares. Total annual return is considered by a number of analysts to be a better, more accurate gauge of a mutual fund's performance, but the NAV is still used as a handy interim evaluation tool. If we assume the company has preferred equity of $3mm and a weighted average share count of 4mm, the BVPS is $3.00 (calculated as $15mm less $3mm, divided by 4mm shares). TBV provides an estimate regarding the value of the company if it goes bankrupt and is forced to liquidate the entirety of its assets. Since certain intrinsic characteristics such as goodwill or employee knowledge cannot be liquidated for a price, TBV does not include intangible assets.

Or, it could use its earnings to reduce liabilities, which would also result in an increase in its common equity and BVPS. Another way to increase BVPS is to repurchase common stock from shareholders and many companies use earnings to buy back shares. The book value of a company is based on the amount of current vs capital expenses money that shareholders would get if liabilities were paid off and assets were liquidated. The market value of a company is based on the current stock market price and how many shares are outstanding. Since public companies are owned by shareholders, this is also known as the total shareholders' equity.

How is Book Value Per Share Different from Market Value Per Share?

Generally, the book value per share is used by investors (especially value investors) to determine whether a share is fairly valued. If the BVPS is less than the price of the stock, then that tells an investor that the stock could be overvalued—it costs more than the assets it's entitled to. On the other hand, when the BVPS is more than the stock price, that means an investor can essentially buy a share in a company's assets for less than those assets are actually worth. The next assumption states that the weighted average of common shares outstanding is 1.4bn. One of the limitations of book value per share as a valuation method is that it is based on the book value, and it excludes other material factors that can affect the price of a company’s share. For example, intangible factors affect the value of a company’s shares and are left out when calculating the BVPS.

How do companies increase their BVPS?

There is also a book value used by accountants to valuate assets owned by a company. This differs from book value for investors because it is used internally for managerial accounting purposes. The book value per share of a company is the total value of the company’s net assets divided by the number of shares that are outstanding. If a company has a book value per share that’s higher than its market value per share, it’s an undervalued stock. Undervalued stock that is trading well below its book value can be an attractive option for some investors.

Unlocking the Calculation Process

When calculating the book value per share of a company, we base the calculation on the common stockholders’ equity, and the preferred stock should be excluded from the value of equity. It is because preferred stockholders are ranked higher than common stockholders during liquidation. The BVPS represents the value of equity that remains after paying up all debts and the company’s assets liquidated. Companies can increase their common equity along with their book value per share by using a portion of their earnings to buy assets. They can also increase their BVPS and common equity by using their earnings to reduce their liabilities.

Therefore, when compared to the market value per share, a high book value per share means the stock is undervalued. Such an interpretation can be considered as a good book value per share for investors looking for undervalued stocks to buy. Once the current stock price of a company falls below its book value per share ratio, a corporate raider could make a risk-free profit by purchasing the company and liquidating it. However, when the liabilities of a company exceed its assets, a negative book value per share ratio emerges which is known as a balance sheet insolvency. Assume, for example, that XYZ Manufacturing’s common equity balance is $10 million, and that 1 million shares of common stock are outstanding. However, as the assets would be sold at market prices, and book value uses the historical costs of assets, market value is considered a better floor price than book value for a company.

There are varying accounting models that companies have to figure out book value. These models are not the same and are dependent on C-level management’s discretion. In theory, a low price-to-book-value ratio means you have a cushion against poor performance. Outdated equipment may still add to book value, whereas appreciation in property may not be included.

Hence, calculating the book value on a per-share basis can help investors decide if the market value of a stock is undervalued or overvalued. A company's future earnings potential is taken into consideration when calculating the market value per share (MVPS), as opposed to BVPS, which uses past expenses. To put it another way, a rise in the anticipated profits or growth rate of a business should raise the market value per share. Should the company dissolve, the book value per common share indicates the dollar value remaining for common shareholders after all assets are liquidated and all creditors are paid. The Book Value Per Share (BVPS) is the per-share value of equity on an accrual accounting basis that belongs to the common shareholders of a company. Aside from assets related to the production of a product, any equipment used to create the product can be included as well.

The book value per share meaning is simply the minimum value of a company’s equity that weighs the book value of a firm on a per-share basis. This is known as the total shareholders’ equity because public companies are owned by shareholders. Therefore, the book value of a company would include every piece of equipment and property owned by the company.

For instance, consider a company's brand value, which is built through a series of marketing campaigns. U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) require marketing costs to be expensed immediately, reducing the book value per share. However, if advertising efforts enhance the image of a company's products, the company can charge premium prices and create brand value. Market demand may increase the stock price, which results in a large divergence between the market and book values per share.

The book value per share (BVPS) is a ratio that weighs stockholders' total equity against the number of shares outstanding. In other words, this measures a company's total assets, minus its total liabilities, on a per-share basis. Book value per common share (or, simply book value per share - BVPS) is a method to calculate the per-share book value of a company based on common shareholders' equity in the company.

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